Application Examples

This page lists application examples for PLECS, the RT Box and Embedded Code Generation. Before opening a model for the RT Box or for Embedded Code Generation in PLECS, please install the corresponding target support packages (RT Box, TI C2000). The .zip files contain models for both PLECS Blockset and Standalone.

The filters below will help you navigate through the collection of application examples.

Titel Beschreibung Dateien PDF
Embedded Code Generation: DC Microgrid

This TI C2000 code generation demo model shows the simulation of a bipolar low-voltage DC microgrid. The microgrid is composed of two Battery Storage Systems (BSS) with a rated power of 20 kW and a switching frequency of 15 kHz and that act as grid-supporting converters, a neutral point clamped (NPC) Grid Interface Converter (GIC) rated at 20 kW and with a switching frequency of 20 kHz, and tunable constant power loads (CPL) and PV production.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Generation

Embedded Code Generation: H-Bridge Converter

This TI C2000 code generation demo model features a current-controlled H-bridge circuit powering an inductive load. The power circuit is supplied by a DC source voltage of 24V and the switching frequency is 10kHz.

Tags: #Power-Supplies

Embedded Code Generation: Input-Series/Output-Parallel Dual Active Bridge

This TI C2000 code generation demo models shows the simulation of a DC/DC converter system based on an Input-Series/Output-Parallel (ISOP) Dual Active Bridge (DAB) structure. The converter is dedicated to energy storage applications and interfaces a DC-voltage network together with a battery-based energy storage system. The DAB delivers up to 15 kW from an 700 V DC input to a 120 V battery pack. The switching frequency is 15 kHz.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Supplies

Embedded Code Generation: Single-Phase PV Inverter

This TI C2000 code generation demo model features a single-phase grid-connected PV inverter. The solar array provides a steady-state output of ~380 V DC, which is connected to a 230 Vrms, 50 Hz single-phase mains via a full bridge inverter and LCL output filter. The control system comprises three control loops: a maximum power point (MPP) controller, a voltage controller and a current controller, and the PLECS multi-tasking feature is deployed for this structure.

Tags: #Power-Generation

Embedded Code Generation: SVPWM Control of a Grid-Connected Three-Level NPC Inverter

This TI C2000 code generation demo model shows the simulation of a grid-connected NPC inverter with closed current loop control using SVPWM (Space-Vector PWM) and a neutral-point balancing technique. A 800 VDC source from the PV array generates a nominal output of 50 kW onto the 230 Vrms, 50 Hz grid. The switching frequency is 20 kHz.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Generation

Embedded Code Generation: Vector Control of an Induction Machine

This TI C2000 code generation demo model features an induction motor drive system with field oriented control. The drive is fed by a DC voltage of 400V and produces 100Nm of torque. The switching frequency is 10 kHz.

Tags:
#Controls
#Motor-Drives

PLECS: Boost Converter

This demo model shows a boost converter with a resistive load operated in open loop. The user can experiment with different circuit parameters to operate the converter in either continuous conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Design tradeoffs, such as switching frequency vs. efficiency can be further investigated.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Boost Converter with PFC and Thermal Model

This demonstration shows a 300 W switched-mode power supply with a thermal model for the PFC and rectifier stages. The AC input voltage may vary between 85 and 265 Vrms and the controlled output voltage is 390 V DC. The simulation combines the electrical power circuit, the control with a standard IC and the thermal behavior of the semiconductors. Component loss descriptions are included to allow the thermal behavior of the MOSFET, boost diode and full bridge rectifier to be investigated. A Steady-State Analysis is also setup to determine the final operating temperatures within seconds.

Tags: #Thermal, #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Boosted Motor Drive

This demonstration illustrates a speed-controlled synchronous machine connected to a battery pack via a boost converter stage that precedes the active front end. The machine is being accelerated and decelerated and is running in both motoring and generating modes.

Tags: #Mechanical, #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Bridgeless Boost PFC Converter

This demonstration shows a single-phase AC/DC bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) boost rectifier circuit. The bridgeless PFC topology replaces a conventional two-stage PFC circuit, and in doing so, provides higher converter efficiency. A nested controller with an outer voltage loop and an inner current loop is used.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Brushless DC Machine

This demonstration shows an inverter-fed, current-controlled brushless DC (BLDC) machine. The machine is initially sped up to a steady-state speed, and the shape on the back electromotive force (EMF) is observed.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Buck Converter with Analog Controls

This demonstration shows a buck converter with a resistive load. The analog controller is implemented in PLECS with electrical circuit components; the pulse generation is performed by comparing the controller output voltage against generated a sawtooth signal.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Analysis Tools

This demonstration shows how to perform a Steady-State Analysis and use small-signal analysis to obtain different open-loop transfer functions for an unregulated buck converter. The transfer function can be calculated by performing an AC Sweep or Impulse Response Analysis, which both inherently first execute a Steady-State Analysis, or alternatively, using the Multitone Analysis, which does not execute a Steady-State Analysis.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Constant On-Time Control

The demonstration shows a buck converter with cascaded voltage and current controller. The current control is based on a constant on-time and implemented using the PLECS State Machine block.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Digital Controls

This demonstration shows a buck converter with a digital controller implementation. The controller block uses a configurable subsystem that can be toggled between a continuous and discrete proportional integral derivative (PID) control scheme. By looking under the mask (Ctrl+U) of the PID Controller block, two further masked subsystems contain the S- and Z-domain controllers.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Loop Gain Analysis

This demonstration shows how to obtain the loop gain of a voltage-regulated buck converter with a resistive load. This can be done by performing an AC Sweep Analysis, which inherently first executes a Steady-State Analysis, or alternatively, using Multitone Analysis, which does not execute a Steady- State Analysis.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Parameter Sweep

This demonstration is based on the demo model "Buck Converter with Analog Controls" in the PLECS demo models library. It performs a sweep of the inductor value in a simulation script. This demo model is particularly useful to implement any kind of parameter sweep in other models as the basic structure serves as a good starting point.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Peak Current Control

This demonstration shows a current-controlled buck converter with a resistive load. The PLECS Peak Current Controller block is used to implement peak current mode control and a voltage control loop is provided in both analog and digital implementations.

Tags:
#Controls, #Tools
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Stray IGBT Tail Current

This demonstration shows a simple unregulated buck converter that models the impacts of stray inductances and an IGBT with tail current. The model uses the non-ideal components "IGBT with limited di/dt" and "Diode with reverse recovery" from the PLECS library.

Tags:
#Power-Supplies

PLECS: Buck Converter with Thermal Model

This demonstration shows a simple unregulated buck converter including a basic thermal model. Blocks from the PLECS thermal domain are used to calculate the switching and conduction losses of the IGBT and diode, as well as model the thermal impedance network between device junctions and ambient environment. Control domain blocks are then used to calculate the component loss information and converter efficiency.

Tags: #Thermal, #Tools, #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Buck-Boost Converters

This demonstration shows an inverting and a non-inverting buck-boost converter, both unregulated. The two circuits have the same passive component parameters, so the currents in the inductor are shown to be the equal while the output voltages are of opposite polarity.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

This demonstration illustrates a three-phase cascaded multi-cell (n-level) inverter, where each cell submodule contains a full bridge. The Full Bridge power module component is used and has a parameter setting for the number of series-connected inverter cells. The implementation of both the power module and the controller is such that the number of cells can be dynamically configured at the top level without having to extend the model with additional wiring or components. Phase shifted carrier pulse width modulation (PSCPWM), the most common modulation scheme for cascaded multilevel inverters, is used.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Cuk Converter

This example demonstrates an unregulated, non-isolated Ćuk converter. Like a buck-boost topology, it can be configured to produce an output voltage either lower or higher than the input voltage. However, it always produces an output voltage whose polarity is opposite of that of the input.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Cuk Converter with Integrated Magnetics

This model highlights the PLECS magnetic domain components using a complex isolated Ćuk converter which is capable of zero-ripple operation. The magnetic circuit consists of two opposing E-cores spaced by air gaps, where two chokes and the transformer are combined into a single structure modeled as three separate permeances. These permeances are implemented using the Saturable Core component, and the flux magnitudes through each leg as well as a stray path can be monitored. During the simulation, the core material saturates leading to spikes in the output current.

Tags: #Magnetics, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Cycloconverter

This demonstration shows a cycloconverter with a three-phase RL load. Each phase consists of two back-to-back connected line-frequency thyristor converters, for a total of 36 devices. The PLECS three-phase Thyristor Rectifier and Thyristor Inverter blocks are available for this purpose. Three three-phase star-star transformers are also used, each with a 1:1 turns winding ratio. In this model, a 5 kV, 50 Hz AC input is converted to a 6.67 kV, 10 Hz AC output.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: DC Motor Drive with Armature Chopper

This example shows the start up of a brushed DC machine drive with speed control using a chopper circuit connected to the armature winding. Step changes in the speed set point and load torque are applied during the simulation.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Diode Rectifier

This example shows a single-phase full-wave diode rectifier. Output voltage ripple can be influenced by the capacitor sizing and this design can form the basis of understanding the need for power factor correction.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Direct Flux Vector Control

This example demonstrates a high-speed salient permanent magnet machine drive based on Direct Flux Vector Control (DFVC). DFVC is less dependent on an accurate knowledge of motor parameters and is particularly well suited for operating a machine in flux-weakening mode.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Double Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine

This demonstration shows a 2 MW wind power system with a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), where the interaction between the electrical circuit and the mechanical drivetrain during normal operation, as well as fault conditions, are investigated. The PLECS thermal and magnetic physical domains are integrated into the model as well.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Mechanical, #Controls, #Power-Generation

PLECS: Dual Active Bridge

This demonstration shows a dual active bridge (DAB) converter with an input voltage of 95 VDC, an output voltage of 380 VDC, and a switching frequency of 250 kHz. This model contains a transformer that is implemented in two configurations: as an ideal model and a more detailed version that includes saturation behavior modeled using the PLECS magnetic domain. Additionally, the thermal behavior of Wolfspeed Silicon Carbide MOSFETs for the primary and secondary side bridges, is included using the PLECS thermal domain. After a system startup transient settles, a load step change from 1 kW to 2 kW is simulated.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Electric Vehicle with Active Damping

This demonstration shows the effects of measurement error and mechanical resonance on the performance of an Electric Vehicle (EV) system. A possible controls solution to mitigate the observed issue is proposed and the overall system performance is compared before and after the method is added.

Tags: #Mechanical, #Controls, #Automotive

PLECS: Flyback Converter

This example demonstrates an unregulated single-output flyback converter. This topology functions like a buck-boost converter, but with galvanic isolation between the source and load sides. Multiple output windings with unique voltages can be configured, though by default this just acts as a single step-down converter. The primary-side switch is operated with a fixed duty cycle so the output voltage can be manipulated solely by the choice of winding turns ratio.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Flyback Converter with Analog Controls

This example demonstrates a three-output flyback converter with closed-loop control of one output. Voltage regulation is applied to the low voltage (5V) output winding using an ideal shunt voltage sensor and PI controller. A load step is performed on this winding to validate the performance of the controller.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Flyback Converter with Magnetics

This demonstration shows a DC-DC flyback converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode with two outputs. The model combines the electrical power circuit with a special magnetic circuit for the flyback transformer and a discrete controller regulating the higher output voltage. A load step is performed on each output winding and the BH loop of the transformer is available to monitor the saturation behavior.

Tags: #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Flying Capacitor DC-DC Converter

This demonstration illustrates a flying capacitor (FC) DC/DC converter (also known as a multicell, imbricated cell or switched-capacitor converter), which is a type of multilevel converter. This model is designed to step down the input voltage to an output voltage that can be configured by adjusting the duty cycle of the modulator. The multicell network has been implemented in PLECS using a modular subsystem concept, where a dynamically-sized chain of components is connected using wires and multiplexers, so the user can configure the number of cells at the top level, without drawing additional circuitry.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Flying Capacitor Single-Phase Inverter

This model shows a flying capacitor (FC) single-phase full bridge voltage source inverter (VSI). The multicell network has been implemented in PLECS using a modular subsystem concept, where a dynamically-sized chain of components is connected using wires and multiplexers, so the user can configure the number of cells at the top level, without drawing additional circuitry. Changing the initial capacitor voltages and running the simulation will show the self-balancing nature of the topology as the capacitor voltages will migrate to their balanced state.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Forward Converter

This example demonstrates a single-transistor unregulated forward converter. This topology functions like a buck-boost converter, but with galvanic isolation between the source and load sides. The windings turns ratio and duty cycle of the primary-side switch can be modified to increase or decrease the output voltage.

Tags:
Choose from #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Frequency Response of Passive Circuit

This demonstration shows how to generate the frequency response of a non-switched network. In this example, a Bode plot is produced for a first-order RC network, specifically with the behavior of a low pass filter. For PLECS Standalone a Simulation Script is included where a parameter sweep can be executed for various values of the passive components to quickly optimize a filter network design.

Tags: #Tools, #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: H-Bridge Inverter Circuit

This demonstration shows a voltage source inverter (VSI) realized with generic switches. The three available output voltage levels are cyclically applied to an RL load. The concepts of dead time and filtering can be explored.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Half-Bridge LLC Converter with Analysis Tools

This demonstration shows a half-bridge LLC resonant converter operated with open-loop and closed-loop frequency control using a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). Further, Multitone Analysis is used in the open-loop system to design the compensator and to check the stability of the closed-loop system.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: HVDC Transmission System with MMCs

This demonstration shows a 320 kV, 200 MW high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission system with two modular multi-level converters (MMC) interconnecting two 110 kV high-voltage AC grids. The converter arms are implemented with the “IGBT Half Bridges (Low-Side-Connected)” power module library component. The implementation of both the power module and the controller is such that the number of cells can be configured at the top level without having to extend the model with additional wiring or components.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Distribution

PLECS: Induction Machine Drive Controlled with DTC

This example demonstrates an Induction Motor (IM) drive with an outer Speed Controller and an inner Direct Torque Controller (DTC). Additionally, a Brake Chopper controller is implemented to clamp the voltage of the DC-link capacitor of the back-to-back converter.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Inverter with C-Script-Based PWM Modulator

This demonstration shows an ideal MOSFET inverter that is controlled by a custom PWM scheme. The modulation logic is implemented as a state machine using the PLECS C-Script block. Minimum switch on-time and dead time parameters can be configured for observing timing effects on the simulated waveforms.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: LLC Variable Frequency Resonant Converter

This demonstration shows an isolated DC/DC resonant LLC converter operated under frequency control. The converter sees zero-voltage switching (ZVS) operation and a simple soft start scheme. The transformer is implemented using a Saturable Core element from the Magnetic domain. Also, thermal descriptions are assigned to the MOSFETs and output diodes so that junction temperatures and losses can be monitored.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Look-up Table-Based PMSM

This example shows an inverter-fed, 8-pole, non-linear permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) configured with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) data included using look-up tables. The FEA data was generated for a Toyota Prius motor model in Infolytica’s MotorSolve platform. The look-up table approach allows the incorporation of machine saturation and cross-saturation effects.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Low Pass Filter Circuits

This example demonstrates two equivalent implementations of a 3rd order Bessel low pass filter using op-amps.

Tags: #Electronics

PLECS: Microgrid in Island Operation

This demonstration illustrates a microgrid with three active generators (solar, wind, etc.) of different VA ratings (1 MVA, 500 kVA, 200 kVA). A supervisory controller at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) ensures that the frequency and voltage are kept at their rated values. Load sharing among the multiple generator units is provided by the local droop control.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Distribution

PLECS: Motor Drive with Failure Modes

This demonstration examines a current-controlled permanent magnet machine under several drive fault mitigation strategies. The system includes an inverter with field-oriented control that supplies the machine operating at a constant speed. Fault conditions such as loss of auxiliary power supply or microprocessor trip can result in loss of power to the inverter. In this simulation, failure mitigation strategies by closing all the lower inverter switches or opening the battery pack contactor are investigated.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Multiphase Synchronous Buck Converter

This demo model shows a configurable multiphase synchronous buck converter with a load step. The number of phases is dynamically configured by the user, so no additional circuitry needs to be drawn. The modulator also uses phase shift logic to properly account for the number of phases.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Neutral-Point Clamped Converter

This demonstration illustrates a neutral-point clamped (NPC), three-level voltage-source inverter. This model is designed to deliver power to a 50 Hz, 130 VRMS grid from a dynamic DC source. The 3-Level Half Bridge power module components are used, which each implement a single leg for an NPC converter. A nested controller and phase-locked loop (PLL) are shown to regulate out a perturbation caused by a step change in current from the PV array in approximately 50 ms.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Operational Amplifier Circuits

This demonstration shows several op-amp circuits, including a multivibrator, integrator and differentiator.

Tags: #Electronics

PLECS: Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine

This example shows an inverter-fed, 8-pole, surface-mount permanent-magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) with an outer speed regulator and an inner hysteresis-type current controller.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Phase Shift DC-DC Converter with Integrated Magnetics

This demonstration shows a phase shift DC-DC converter with a magnetically integrated current doubler. The combined transformer and output inductors are implemented in the PLECS Magnetic Domain. Thermal descriptions are assigned to the MOSFET switches in the full bridge as well as the output diodes so that junction temperatures and losses can be monitored.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Plant Code Generation: Three-Phase 6-Pulse Thyristor Converter

This example demonstrates PLECS Standalone code generation capabilities for physical systems including electrical circuits. In this model ANSI-C code is generated to represent a three-phase thyristor (SCR) rectifier circuit. The model performance using generated C code is benchmarked against the baseline system using native PLECS components. Code generation for physical systems is essential to model physical plants in a real-time simulation environment, such as with the RT Box family of simulators. Please note that in order to enable code generation and run this simulation, you will need a PLECS Coder license.

Tags: #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Power Split Hybrid Vehicle System

This demonstration shows a Lithium-ion (Li-ion), battery-powered, series-parallel hybrid vehicle system. The simulation shows the startup for an electrically and mechanically coupled hybrid system.

Tags: #Mechanical, #Controls, #Automotive

PLECS: Power Supply Compensator Analysis

This demonstration analyzes the performance of Type 2 and Type 3 analog compensators used in power supply units (PSUs). The analyzed PSU is a buck converter with modeled-in inductor and capacitor non-idealities. The role of the capacitor and its effective series resistance (ESR) on the plant zero and poles is discussed. Furthermore, the compensators’ performance is analyzed with respect to the phase margin, system bandwidth, and rate of change in gain at the cross-over frequency, using the PLECS Analysis Tools.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Resonant Full-Bridge SLR Converter

This example shows a full bridge series-loaded resonant (SLR) DC/DC converter with capacitor snubbers parallel to the active switches. The resonant tank frequency of the inductor and capacitor is 5,033 Hz. The switching frequency can be tuned to operate the converter in both CCM and DCM.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Resonant Half-Bridge SLR Converter

This example shows a half bridge series-loaded resonant (SLR) DC/DC converter. The resonant tank frequency of the inductor and capacitor is 5,033 Hz. The converter uses a half-bridge switch network and a capacitor to filter out the high frequency harmonics at the load. The switching frequency can be toggled to operate the converter in both CCM and DCM.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Series Capacitor Buck Converter

This demonstration shows a two-phase series capacitor buck converter circuit with constant on-time control for a 12 V input point of load (POL) voltage-regulator application. This topology automatically balances inductor currents without any current sensing circuits or load-sharing control loops. The practical limit of the output voltage may be one-fifth the input voltage.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Servo Drive with Optimum Braking

This demonstration illustrates a servo drive application, combining the PLECS electrical, control and mechanical domains. The system includes an inverter with field-oriented control that supplies a servomotor coupled to a ball screw gear. The output of the gear is attached to a slide, which holds the part that is being position-controlled for manufacturing (e.g. milling) operations.

Tags: #Mechanical, #Controls, #Automation

PLECS: Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter

This example demonstrates an unregulated single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC). The SEPIC closely resembles a non-inverting buck-boost converter; however a capacitor couples the input and output rather than an inductor. The converter is setup to run in continuous conduction mode (CCM). Small changes to the equivalent series resistances (ESR) of the two inductors or the diode parameters and can be observed to have significant effects on the efficiency of the converter.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Single-Phase 2-Pulse Thyristor Converter

This demonstration shows a single-phase full-wave thyristor (SCR) converter with a 325 V, 50 Hz AC voltage rectified and applied to an RL load. Changing the firing angle influences the magnitude of the output signals.

Tags: #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Single-Phase Active Filter

This example demonstrates a single-phase diode rectifier with a shunt active filter circuit. A 220 V, 50 Hz residential utility supplies a 20 Ω DC load via a full-wave diode rectifier resulting in source current rich in harmonic content. The shunt active filter consists of a separate voltage source inverter (VSI) that provides dynamic compensation due to its controllability. A Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) is deployed for grid phase sensing and a simple hysteresis controller is used for the VSI.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Single-Phase Battery Charger

This demonstration shows a grid-connected battery charger with cascaded AC/DC and DC/DC converters. The AC/DC converter uses an interleaved boost converter regulated by a digital PI controller to achieve power factor correction (PFC) and maintain the DC bus voltage at 300VDC. The DC/DC converter is based on a phase-shifted resonant converter and designed to provide a maximum 120VDC output at a power rating of 1.4kW. It has components from both the thermal and magnetic domains.

Tags: #Thermal, #Magnetics, #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Single-Phase Diode Rectifier with PFC

This example shows a single-phase diode rectifier with power factor correction (PFC). The rectifier draws from a 325 V, 60 Hz AC source and produces an output of 450 V DC at the load. The configurable controller has two implementations that tradeoff complexity and reduced distortion with increased ripple amplitude.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Single-Phase PV Inverter

Single-phase PV inverters are commonly used in residential rooftop PV systems. In this application example, a single-phase, single-stage, grid-connected PV inverter is modeled. The PV system includes an accurate PV string model that has a peak output power of 3 kW.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Generation

PLECS: Single-Phase PV Inverter with Partial Shading

This demonstration illustrates a grid-connected solar panel system with a boosted front end and a single-phase inverter back end. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is implemented to improve the performance of the solar panel under partial shading conditions. Further, the inverter is operated with an outer voltage loop to control the DC-link voltage and a synchronous regulator to maintain unity power factor.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Generation

PLECS: Space Vector Control of a Boost System

This example model demonstrates space vector control of a three-phase boost-type rectifier. The Space Vector PWM block included with PLECS is implemented using a C-Script block. The code-based implementation can be viewed to study the definition of the switching matrices, reference vector magnitude and angle calculations, sector detection logic, and calculation of relative on-times.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: STATCOM Cascaded H-Bridge Converter

This demonstration shows a 10 MVA medium-voltage static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) system. Converters with cascaded connections are common in high-power applications such as medium-voltage drives, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) and flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS). These types of converters have the advantages of low switching losses and high redundancy, but require sophisticated control, e.g., cell-capacitor voltage balancing.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Distribution

PLECS: Swiss Rectifier with Digital Controller

This demonstration shows a Swiss Rectifier (SR) with an output power of 5 kW and load step. The SR is a unidirectional, three-phase, buck-type, AC-DC converter with power factor correction. Both a “minimal injection current ripple” switching strategy and “minimized dc inductor current ripple” switching strategy are available.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Switched Reluctance Machine

This example shows an inverter-fed, current-controlled switched reluctance machine (SRM) that can be configured as a 3, 4, and 5 phase machine. The drive comprises a DC voltage source feeding an asymmetric converter that can be operated in magnetization, freewheeling, and demagnetization modes.

Tags: #Controls, #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Synchronous Buck Converter

This demonstration shows a regulated synchronous buck converter with a fixed load and switched load in parallel. The simulation includes the start-up of the converter and two load current steps. A continuous PID controller regulates the output voltage. This model can be used as a starting point to explore both the electronics and regulator for practical designs.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Synchronous Generator Feeding a Rectifier

This demo model is of a salient-pole synchronous generator that feeds a rectifier circuit, producing a DC voltage. When a diode rectifier is directly connected to the machine terminals, the machine must be implemented in “voltage-behind-reactance” form. Otherwise, an RC snubber circuit across the terminals is required.

Tags: #Motor-Drives

PLECS: Three-Level Boost PFC Converter

This demonstration presents a single-phase three-level boost power factor correction (PFC) converter. As compared to the traditional boost PFC, the converter power density and efficiency can be significantly improved, and design costs can be reduced for high power and/or high voltage applications. The demo model shows an example power stage that converts single-phase 60 Hz, 120 V AC (rms) to 350 V DC.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Three-Phase 6-Pulse Thyristor Converter

This example demonstrates a feedback-controlled, three-phase, grid-connected thyristor (SCR) rectifier. The control scheme first ramps up the output DC current from 0 to 10 A and then steps it up to 25 A. A Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) detects the phase angle of the three-phase supply voltage and PI controller regulates the DC current.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Three-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier

This example shows a three-phase, full-wave diode bridge rectifier with a configurable capacitive or inductive load. The user can experiment by changing different circuit components to study the harmonic content at the source and output ripple.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Three-Phase Grid-Connected PV Inverter

This model demonstrates a three-phase, two-stage grid-connected solar inverter. The PV system includes an accurate PV string model that has a peak output power of 3 kW and the strings can be series-parallel connected to scale to a desired array output power. The simulation combines the electrical power circuit, the DC/DC and DC/AC control schemes, and the thermal behavior of the semiconductors.

Tags: #Thermal, #Controls, #Power-Generation

PLECS: Three-Phase T-Type Inverter

This demonstration presents a three-phase T-type inverter for grid-tie applications with thermal descriptions of SiC MOSFETs included. This model exhibits how the device selection, controller parameters, and modulation approach influence the thermal performance of the inverter. By leveraging analysis tools and simulation scripts, the inverter performance is studied under several different operating conditions to ensure the system behaves safely and efficiently.

Tags: #Thermal, #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverter

This model shows a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) system designed to achieve a power rating of 10 kW. Three different Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) schemes are presented for controlling the VSI output: Sine PWM, Space Vector (SV) PWM, and Hysteresis PWM. The harmonics generated by each modulation strategy are compared.

Tags: #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Thyristor Chopper Circuit

This demonstration shows how a single thyristor (also, silicon-controlled rectifier or SCR) is used to chop an AC voltage applied to an RL load. The user can tune the firing angle of the thyristor to change the load current and voltage.

Tags: #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Totem-Pole Bridgeless Boost PFC Converter

This demonstration shows a single-phase AC/DC totem-pole bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) boost rectifier circuit. The totem-pole PFC topology replaces a conventional two-stage PFC circuit, and in doing so, provides higher converter efficiency. A nested controller with an outer voltage loop and an inner current loop is used.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Two Stage LED Driver

This demonstration shows the design of a two-stage LED driver circuit consisting of a boost-PFC for AC/DC conversion followed by a flyback converter for DC/DC conversion. The first stage provides a near unity power factor and a low total harmonic distortion (THD), while the second DC/DC stage is used to provide a tight regulation of the output. The controllers in both these cases have been tuned analytically using the K-factor method. The LED load is represented by a non-linear V-I curve obtained from the forward current characteristic curve of an actual device.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Two-Axle Vehicle with Driving Profile

This demonstration shows a two-axle electric vehicle model with front-wheel drive and highlights the mechanical domain. The vehicle’s driving cycle as well as the tire models have multiple configurations implemented. Traction forces and vehicle weight distribution are also taken into consideration in order to calculate the corresponding torques.

Tags: #Mechanical, #Automotive

PLECS: Vienna Rectifier with Hysteresis Controller

This demonstration shows a Vienna Rectifier with an output voltage of 700 V and an output power of 12.25 kW. The controls are modeled as cascaded subsystems and consist of a current loop, a DC center point voltage loop and a DC voltage loop. The simulation shows the controller response to a sudden asymmetrical loading of the output voltage.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Voltage Source Inverter

This demonstration shows a closed-loop controlled 3-phase voltage source inverter operating as an active rectifier. The load is initially disconnected and is then connected periodically, with the controller designed to achieve unity power factor and a steady output voltage of 700 VDC from a 325 VAC, 50 Hz source.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Voltage Source Inverter with Pre-Charge

This demonstration shows a closed-loop controlled 3-phase voltage source inverter with a DC-link pre-charge. These resistors are used to limit the inrush current during the initial charging of the DC-link capacitor. The controller designed to achieve unity power factor and a steady output voltage of 700 VDC from a 325 VAC, 50 Hz source.

Tags: #Controls, #Power-Supplies

PLECS: Watkins-Johnson Converter

This example demonstrates an unregulated, non-isolated Watkins-Johnson or push-pull current-fed converter. This topology is a DC/DC converter with a tapped inductor, that can either boost or lower the output voltage. The duty cycle can be tuned to determine the output voltage.

Tags:
Choose from #Basic-Topologies

PLECS: Windpower System with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

This demonstration shows a 2 MW wind power system with a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), where the interaction between the electrical circuit and the mechanical drivetrain during normal operation and fault conditions is investigated. The PLECS thermal domain is also applied to the three-level neutral-point clamped (NPC) back-to-back converter.

Tags: #Thermal, #Mechanical, #Controls, #Power-Generation

PLECS: Z-Source Inverter

This demonstration shows a current-controlled three-phase Z-source inverter used in a fuel-cell application. The unique impedance network in the Z-source inverter allows the inverter to be operated in both buck and boost modes. The model includes a continuous current controller that was tuned analytically using the K-factor method, and a modulator implemented with the PLECS State Machine block.

Tags: #Controls, #Tools, #Power-Supplies

RT Box: Automated Testing Application using Robot Framework

For automated test environments the RT Box can be controlled via external scripts using an XML-RPC interface. XML-RPC is a lightweight protocol for executing functions on a remote machine. The RT Box acts as an XML-RPC server, which processes requests sent from scripts running on another computer. Many scripting languages support XML-RPC out of the box, for example Python. For test automation the XML-RPC interface can be used together with the open-source automation framework “Robot”. This demo shows how to set up a basic automated test for the RT Box by using the XML-RPC interface of the RT Box and the Robot Framework. It also provides a basic Robot library file that can be used for any user-defined automated tests and list the XML-RPC API of the RT Box.

Tags:
#Tools

RT Box: Boost Converter

This RT Box demo model features a boost converter with a resistive load and closed-loop current control. The nominal operating condition is given at 52 kW power, 480 V input voltage and 108 A inductor current reference. The switching frequency is 20 kHz.

Tags: #Basic-Toplogies

RT Box: Dual Active Bridge Converter

This RT Box demo model features a dual active bridge (DAB) DC/DC converter for battery charging applications. The DAB delivers up to 50 kW from an 800 V DC input to a 200 V, 100 kWh battery pack. The controller has been designed to achieve a 100 Hz closed-loop current control bandwidth and the switching frequency is 10 kHz.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Supplies

RT Box: H-Bridge Converter

This RT Box demo model features a current-controlled H-bridge circuit powering an inductive load. The power circuit is supplied by a DC source voltage of 24V and the switching frequency is 10kHz.

Tags:
#Basic-Topologies

RT Box: Single-Phase Inverter

This RT Box demo model features a single-phase grid-connected inverter operating at 50 kW and unity power factor. The switching frequency is 16 kHz.

Tags:
#Basic-Topologies

RT Box: Three-level Grid-connected NPC Solar Inverter with LCL-filter and Active Damping

This RT Box demo model features a grid-connected three-level neutral-point clamped (NPC) inverter with closed-loop control using a space-vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) scheme. The inverter delivers 50 kW from an 800 V DC input to a 50 Hz, 230 Vrms stiff grid. The link between the inverter and the grid features an LCL-filter and an active damping technique is employed to prevent controller instability due to the resonance brought by the filter. The switching frequency is 20 kHz.

Tags:
#Controls
#Power-Generation

RT Box: Vector Control of an Induction Machine

This RT Box demo model features an induction motor drive system with field oriented control. The drive is fed by a DC voltage of 400V and produces 200Nm of torque. The switching frequency is 10 kHz.

Tags:
#Controls
#Motor-Drives

RT Box: XML-RPC Scripting Interface

This demo model is aimed at demonstrating the basic usage of the XML-RPC interface of the RT Box using a Python script. The script features basic interactions such as uploading an executable to the RT Box, starting a real-time simulation, setting a Programmable Value block, and reading back data from a Data Capture block.

Tags:
#Tools